TABLE OF CONTENTS
There are many common cannabis contaminants and pollutants, in both home grows and commercial cultivation operations.
These contaminants are often chemical or biological in nature and can range from molds, fungi, and heavy metals to residual pesticide residue. High-residual solvents in cannabis concentrates is another area of pollutants in cannabis and cannabis-related products.
These pollutants can have a wide range of causes, with improper growing and manufacturing practices, improper curing or storage, high humidity, improper temperatures, impure water, and the application of noxious chemical pesticides being the most common causes.
Cannabis contaminants differ from common pests like spider mites and aphids, which prey on plants and sustain themselves on plant liquid.
These pests can reduce the yield and potency of cannabis harvests, but they do not taint the flower in the same manner as pollutants, although tested flower recalls can and do occur from mite infestations at the time of testing.
For all of these pollutants, sound cannabis cultivation practices and procedures will minimize, if not eliminate, any problems with them. The presence of pollutants and contaminants should not normally occur, so their presence indicates some changes should be made.
Remember, prevention is the best medicine, so the goal is to prevent these problems from occurring in the first place.
Home Growers Versus Commercial Cannabis Growers
An experienced home grower with a limited number of plants has the advantage of having a small environment to control and monitor, as well as the ability to view every plant closely on a daily basis, so any problems are identified quickly and often addressed before they create serious problems.
Commercial growers face more of a challenge, since they have large growing areas and hundreds of plants to care for and monitor. This allows insidious pathogens to get a foothold and go unnoticed, sometimes until there is a serious problem.
Commercial cannabis growers are essentially farmers—with all of the headaches and concerns of farmers of conventional crops. Mainstream farmers aren’t immune to crop pollutants, wither. We’ve all seen numerous recalls on produce items like romaine lettuce contaminated with salmonella, a bacterium that causes food poisoning.
Unfortunately, contaminated cannabis flower is not an uncommon situation among producers of medicinal and recreational cannabis. As recently as December 18, 2018, the Denver Department of Public Health and Environment (DDPHE) announced a voluntary recall by a major medical marijuana producer and wholesaler for mold and yeast concerns on plant material distributed to numerous dispensaries throughout the state.
This sort of predicament can cause a public relations nightmare for a cannabis company that quickly has to go into crisis-management mode to protect its name and reputation. Clearly, a situation like this does little to build brand trust and loyalty for these companies.
Mold and Mildew on Cannabis
The most common cannabis pollutants include white powdery mildew and mold. Anyone familiar with cannabis cultivation should be able to spot these problems and, hopefully, catch them early.
White powdery mildew looks much like its name implies. The surface of the cannabis plant looks as if it’s been dusted with flour—which looks very different from the white, sticky coating of trichomes that cover the surface of flower and sweet leaf.
Mold is easy to spot as well, but has quite a different appearance. It most often affects the surface and nooks and crannies of flowers, and looks like fine, clumpy spiderwebs.
Mold can also affect other areas of the plant, including the leaves, especially if there are large shade leaves resting on the surface of other leaves.
This is one reason why many cultivators thin out the large leaves on their plants. It helps prevent mold growth and allows more light through the plant canopy to reach the flowers on middle and lower branches.
Both white powdery mildew and mold are usually preventable, and if they should strike, some cultivation practice modifications will usually rectify the problem.
Overly high humidity and temperatures that fluctuate usually contribute to an outbreak of these cannabis contaminants.
Mildew on Cannabis
Mildew is not visible to the naked eye and usually results from cannabis flowers that are in an overly wet environment. Just like a wet bath towel that’s been left on a bathroom floor for a day or two can result in the telltale odor of mildew when sniffed, cannabis is vulnerable to growing mildew in a similar way.
Mildew often results from an improper cure. Once cannabis flowers are cut from the plant, trimming (unless it’s a dry trim) and the curing process should occur as soon as possible. Trimmed flower should hang for drying.
Most commercial cannabis companies cure their flower at designated temperatures and humidity levels that result in a gradual, steady drying process. Sometimes, however, flower is not completely dry at the expected time—even when it appears to be—and placing it in bags or jars will result in mildew growth on bud surfaces.
This can be a frustrating situation; no one wants to smoke or vape mildew-laced flower. Like other flower tainted by pollutants, it should be disposed of properly and not used for human consumption.
Mildew that strikes after the curing process is most common in very dense flowers. Strains that have rock-hard nuggets for flowers are highly desirable because their denseness and heavier weight take up less volume by weight than less-dense flower.
Just like the wet towel left on the bathroom floor, flower with mildew usually is easy to identify with a single whiff. Mildew has a distinctive odor, and once you’ve smelled it, you’ll be able to identify it forever.
Heavy Metals, Pesticides, and Residual Solvents on Cannabis
These three common cannabis pollutants are restricted to two different areas of cannabis and cannabis-product production: cultivation and concentrates manufacturing. None of these three problems are visible to the naked eye but their presence is easy to detect through the implementation of specific tests.
Pesticides come in many forms, some of them benign and/or biological (ladybugs, etc.), while others are highly toxic. Most legal cannabis states have lists of acceptable and unacceptable pesticides.
A company that gets flagged for unacceptable pesticide contaminants can face fines and possible recalls. This is one of the reasons so many people prefer consuming flower produced with organic growing practices.
Cannabis cultivation companies that are inspected and approved for organic cultivation practices have a distinct marketing advantage over other companies.
Unacceptable residual solvents can occur during the manufacturing and production of cannabis concentrates. Products like oil, shatter, wax, and crumble are often made with the use of solvents like alcohol, butane, propane, and carbon dioxide.
While water is considered a solvent in the cannabis industry, some refer to the production of “bubble hash” using water as a “solvent-less extraction” method, and this hash is decidedly different from hash produced using old, conventional methods.
One of the most recent extraction methods is distillate extraction, which is very pure.
Some extraction methods, if done improperly, can result in high residual solvents like butane or propane. The goal of all extraction operations is to produce concentrates high in cannabinoids and terpenes, but low in residual solvents.
In addition to individual companies doing their own independent testing, independent cannabis testing labs also are an option in some areas of the country, and third-party testing is often a requirement of cannabis regulations.
Testing for Contaminants on Cannabis
Heavy metals in tap water are never desirable, and pollutants such as lead can cause serious health problem if humans ingest them at unhealthy levels.
Before any home or commercial cannabis grower begins a garden, they should test their tap water for pH and heavy metals. If the water is impure, appropriate filtration devices and/or water additives should solve any problems that exist.
Testing cannabis for the presence and levels of various terpenes and cannabinoids is probably the most common cannabis testing done today, since printing the potency levels of cannabis is usually mandatory in legal cannabis states.
Testing for cannabis contaminants is also a common occurrence, and one that’s often left to third-party tasting labs.
The advanced testing equipment and procedures these labs use make them the preferred method for receiving comprehensive testing results. Several of these labs have locations in different states to accommodate the growing number of legal cannabis areas in the country.
Knowing how to identify the presence of cannabis contaminants is important for any cannabis company and even advanced home growers. Addressing the cause of and eliminating these contaminants is vital to the success of any cannabis operation.
Cannabis contamination can be prevented, if you know just how to do it. If you are facing this problem and don't know what to do, you have come to the right place. We will give you enough information for you to get started.
While cannabis legalization is good for many people, cannabis safety is also of utmost importance, especially in the eyes of the consumer and for cannabis growers that want to save their crop and have a good harvest.
Cannabis safety has become an issue of real concern. Oregon had to recall two batches of cannabis due to contamination from pesticide residue. There was a recall in March 2018 in Colorado, but it was later found that most of the cannabis was safe.
The UK had previously announced a concern related to cannabis contamination due to glass particles sprayed on the cannabis.
The question now is should consumers be concerned with cannabis contamination? In many instances, this issue starts in the unregulated black market and in a few cases, it might occur in the legal cannabis market. Now, let us look at some of the things that could result in cannabis contamination.
Pesticides & Cannabis
The most major issue as it relates to cannabis contamination is pesticides. In the United States, legal cannabis growers pay close attention to their crops, monitoring and regulating as much as possible for a more improved harvest.
In Europe, the cannabis industry is not regulated yet and so cannabis contamination is possible since the black market threat is a possibility.
The risks are smaller for consumers living in places like Croatia, Italy and Germany; at least for the legal medical cannabis market. In such case, cannabis is either imported from the Netherlands and Canada or grown by the armed forces (military).
Pay attention to your crop so that you can identify pests and do what is necessary to get rid of them. Use a black light to inspect your cannabis plant. If the plants are contaminated, you will notice spores or black spots that are quite apparent.
Mold and Bacteria & Cannabis
Cannabis contamination can result from mold and bacteria and it is a huge concern for many cannabis growers. Mold and bacteria affect the cannabis plant during the curing and dying process. This can prove to be harmful.
This is particularly true for those that use medical cannabis. Even when Canada has regulated cannabis, contamination is still a massive problem, especially for domestic products. And, testing is not always done to fix the issue.
Testing should be one of the main solutions to cannabis contamination. In addition, it is important to keep humidity at a minimum in order to prevent bacteria and mold on cannabis. You should make sure that you have control over the temperature in your grow operation so that too much humidity is not an issue.
Heavy Metals & Cannabis
Cannabis contamination occurs also with heavy metals, especially from the soil. However, it also sometimes comes from shatters and concentrates.
One reason for this is because butane is used to make them or if concentrates are manufactured in large quantities, heavy metals are possible.
To avoid this, don't make cannabis concentrates or shatters at home. It is best to purchase from a professional manufacturer because they usually know what to do to avoid this.
Cannabis Contamination Summary
From cannabis production to post-harvest procedures, there are a number of crucial elements in preventing contamination.
Knowing the possible causes of contamination and putting mitigation measures in place are essential to producing clean, uncontaminated cannabis.
Prevention Techniques: Facility Management: It's critical to make sure that the facilities used for processing and cultivation are free of pollutants. This entails doing routine cleaning, upholding good manufacturing principles (GMP), and making sure the filtration and ventilation systems are operating properly.
Water Testing: To avoid contamination from these sources, it's critical to test tap water for pH and heavy metals prior to using it for cannabis production.
Employee Procedures: Employees must receive enough training on how to handle cannabis. To avoid contamination from handling, workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and adhere to hygiene precautions.
Environmental Factors: One important way to avoid contamination is by strategically placing the cultivation facility. Wind drift and other environmental variables can cause contamination when locations with high pollen or pesticide use are close by.
Cannabis Remediation Technologies: By utilizing ozone-based WillowPure systems, for example, pollutants like as mold, bacteria, yeast, and other dangerous microbes can be reduced.
Businesses Providing Testing for Cannabis Contamination
Modern Canna provides testing for pesticides, solvent residue, and microbiological contaminants in cannabis.
Belcosta Labs is a compliance testing facility located in California that offers cannabis farmers professional guidance as well as microbiological testing on cannabis.
Medicinal Genomics provides PathoSEEK® Microbial Safety Testing kits.
Willow Industries offers products such as the WillowPure system and specializes in cannabis decontamination technologies.
Items to Utilize in Order to Prevent Cannabis Contaminants
Instruments for Monitoring the Cultivation Environment: Instruments for monitoring the cultivation environment, such as temperature and humidity controls, can aid in lowering the chance of microbial development.
Water filtration systems: To rid water used for cannabis growth of heavy metals and other impurities.
PPE and Hygiene treatments: To avoid contamination, workers handling cannabis must use gloves, masks, and sterilizing treatments.
Technologies for Remediation: Post-harvest remedies are provided by products like WillowPure to lessen pollutants in the finished product.
To guarantee product safety and regulatory compliance, cannabis firms must stay up to date on the most recent preventative measures and testing standards.
What is a potential contaminant of cannabis?
The common cannabis contaminants include heavy metals, pesticides, and microbes.
What are the microbial contaminants in cannabis?
The methods of cultivation, harvesting, drying and curing, or extraction can all result in contamination. Molds and bacteria can grow on cannabis plants and products during growth (especially if they are cultivated inside in an unhygienic setting or outdoors), or during handling and processing afterwards.
What are the mycotoxins found in cannabis?
Processing, storage, and transportation are also conducive to cannabis contamination and may raise the product's mycotoxin content. Aflatoxin G1, G2, B1, B2, and ochratoxin A are examples of mycotoxins that are considered hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and neurologically toxic.
What is grey mold in cannabis?
Crops impacted by botrytis range from hemp and cannabis to strawberries and grapes. Often referred to as “grey mold,” “bud rot,” or “Botrytis blight,” it thrives in moist environments and tends to infect tissue that is weak or injured. Dry and hot conditions will stop growth.
Final Thoughts on How to Prevent Cannabis Contamination
The best way to prevent cannabis contamination is to buy your cannabis from regulated dispensaries. You could also purchase a tester such as “MyDx” to find out if your cannabis is contaminated or not.
To learn more about the medical effects of cannabis and how to grow clean cannabis, enroll in Cannabis Training University's online cannabis certification today!
Fred Hernandez is a highly accomplished and versatile writer, boasting an extensive background in the cannabis industry. With an in-depth understanding of various sectors including cultivators, processors, retailers, and brands, Fred's expertise spans across the entire cannabis landscape. As a prominent contributor to CTU, he consistently delivers insightful articles exploring the latest developments, news, and regulations shaping the cannabis industry. Whether it's delving into the intricacies of cannabis products, cannabis strain reviews, or providing comprehensive analyses of cannabis laws, or sharing expert insights on cannabis cultivation techniques, Fred's wealth of knowledge positions him as an invaluable writer and educator for all cannabis-related subjects.